S.Khalilov was born on October 1, 1939 in the village of Upper Garabulag of Dmanisi district of the Republic of Georgia. In 1962 he graduated from the Faculty of Geography of Azerbaijan State University (now Baku State University).
In 1969 he was awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Geography, in 1996 - Doctor of Geography, in 2007 - Professor. In 2001 he was elected Corresponding Member of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences (ANAS).
S.Khalilov was sent to work at the Institute of Geography of the Academy of Sciences, where he worked as the head of the Department of Ecology, Deputy Director for Scientific Affairs, Laboratory Manager, Secretary of the Academy Party Committee, Vice-Rector for Humanities at the Azerbaijan State University, and Professor of Environment
The main scientific activity of S. Khalilov is to study hydrological features of water reservoirs and lakes of Azerbaijan, the dynamics of water reservoirs and shores, the problems of water management, including the impact of water reservoirs on environment, their protection and efficient use. He worked out the main environmental and geographical principles of the efficient placement of new reservoirs within the geographies of Azerbaijan, and predicted the negative effects of existing reservoirs on the environment, including the dynamics of their shoreline and shoreline. His scientific results in 1995, 1997 and 2000 were considered by the Presidium of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences as the most important result of geographical science.
S.Khalilov was elected secretary of the party committee of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Azerbaijan in 1978-1984 and was elected as the first deputy chairman of the Yasamal district organization of the New Azerbaijan Party after the independence of Azerbaijan. He was a member of the Expert Council of the Certification Commission.
He is the author of more than 100 scientific works, including 5 monographs, and has published more than 50 articles on rivers, lakes and reservoirs in volumes VI-X of the Azerbaijan Soviet Encyclopedia. His 12 scientific works have been published abroad. For over 20 years, he has been a regular contributor to many of the most popular television programs in Azerbaijan, such as Travel and Travel to Soviet Azerbaijan.
Khalilov was awarded the Jubilee Medal for "For Valiant Labor".
Corresponding member of ANAS Shahvalad Khalilov died in 2007 in Baku.