G.Sultanov was born in 1918 in Ardabil, Iran. In 1938 he was admitted to the Faculty of Biology of Azerbaijan State University (now Baku State University).
In 1948 he got PhD, in 1956 - Doctor of Geology and Mineralogy, and in 1968 was elected Corresponding Member of the Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan (AEA).
G.Sultanov participated in the Great Patriotic War. After graduating from Azerbaijan State University in 1945, he worked at the Institute of Geology (now Institute of Geology and Geophysics) until 1956, and in 1957 at ASU. For the first time in paleontology, he used physical and chemical methods to study the fauna of late Miocene basins, and determined the nature and development of the Sarmat fauna species in Azerbaijan.
Sultanov was one of the founders of paleobiogeochemistry, a new direction in the science of paleontology in Azerbaijan. He divided the Absheron floor into three and a half floors and smaller stratigraphic units.
G.Sultanov is an author of numerous scientific articles and monographs.
Corresponding member of ANAS Gadir Sultanov died in 1995 in Baku.