M.Aliyev was born in Shamakhi in 1908. He graduated from Azerbaijan Polytechnic Institute (now Azerbaijan State Oil and Industrial University), mining faculty in 1931. M.Aliyev got a PhD degree in Geology and Mineralogy in 1936, Sc.D. (Geology and Mineralogy) and professor in 1957. In 1950 he was elected as an active member of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences (AAS). While studying for postgraduate studies (1935-1937), he worked as chief of the Caucasian Geology Trust, head of the Azerbaijan Geology Department, founded in 1938. The organizational talent allowed him to successfully link scientific, pedagogical and social activities.In 1936-1941 he worked at Azerbaijan Industrial Institute as a docent, dean of the oil faculty and rector of the institute. In 1941-1942 he was appointed head of General Education Directorate of the Ministry of Oil of the USSR, and also passed pedagogical activity at Moscow Petrolium Institute. During the Great Patriotic War, he led evacuation of Moscow and Grozny Oil Institutions in order to continue the development of engineering and technical personnel for the country's industry. He worked in the party and government agencies of Azerbaijan in 1943-1949. Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan on industry, Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Azerbaijan, Chairman of the State Planning Committee, member of the II, III and IV calls of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. One of the main achievements of the scientist was his leadership in 1949 on the basis of a project on exploration and exploitation of oil and gas in the Caspian Sea, a large offshore oilfield in the oil industry (“Oil Rocks”).
In 1950 he was elected President of AAS (1950-1958). During his presidency, he played an important role in the direction of AAS development, creation of new research institutes, divisions and departments, the organization of the most promising areas of science in Azerbaijan, and the publication of numerous maps and monographs (the motion in front of the government to open the Shamakhi Astrophysics Observatory Belongs to Aliyev).
The scientific activity of M. Aliyev was connected with paleontology and stratigraphy. He was the founder of the Mesozoic Paleontologist and Stratigraphy School in Azerbaijan. Since 1958 a new era of scientific activity of M. Aliyev began (Moscow). Scientific activity of M.Aliyev in Moscow started from the Transcaucasia, surrounded by the western Siberia, Volga-Ural and the oil-gas states of Central Asia. In 1967-1971 he headed the Soviet-Algeria oil and gas contract. The opening of Algerian Tinduph and Hassi Brahim oil and gas fields is related to the name of M.Aliyev. M. Aliyev's long-term scientific, organizational, pedagogical and social activity has been highly appreciated by the government. He deserved "Lenin", twice the "Red Labor Flag" and the Order of “Honor ", awards and medals. He was awarded the title of "Honorable Petroleum Engineer” . The scientist's name has been included in the "Honor Book of the USSR Oil Industry" for a long-term scientific activity in the oil industry. More than 60 doctors and PhDs have been trained under his leadership. M.Aliyev is the author of about 350 scientific works related to various problems of geology, paleontology and stratigraphy.
Academician Musa Aliyev died in Moscow in 1985 and was buried in Baku.
The decision to hold the 100th jubilee of M.Aliyev was made at the 34th session of the UNESCO General Conference in 2008. On November 17, 2009, his jubilee was held in Paris at UNESCO's solemn ceremony, which was internationally acknowledged by its multifaceted scientific creativity.